The Quran 652
Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) (c. 570–632)
The sacred scripture of Islam is the foundation of Islamic law, often known as Sharia. The prophet Muhammad (pbuh), according to religious tradition, received his first revelation near Mecca in 610 and continued to receive them until his death. His followers committed his words and acts to memory, and scribes assembled them into the Quran after his death.
There are roughly 500 legal injunctions from God in the Quran about how people should conduct themselves. It also contains Sunnah, or the tradition of the prophet’s actions, words, and teachings. These oral traditions became known as Hadith after they were written down. Sharia is made up of the Quran and the Sunnah taken together. Wael Hallaq, an Islam scholar, divides Sharia into five kinds of morallegal precepts. The first is the banned, which includes activities such as violation of contract and theft that are punishable. The second type is the compulsory, in which punishment is meted out for failing to perform something necessary, such as pray or pay one’s bills. The third category is the recommended category, which includes good deeds like assisting the destitute, paying visits to neighbors and friends, and welcoming people with a customary Islamic greeting. The neutral and unapproved categories are the last two. Although there is no punishment for failing to perform what is suggested or doing what is forbidden, persons who act in such a way are expected to be judged in the future, probably in the hereafter.
During the early stages of Islamic law, a mufti, or knowledgeable jurist, answered queries from citizens and judges concerning the applicability of the law to specific circumstances. In the form of a fatwa, the mufti responded with a legal opinion (today associated with the edicts of religious leaders). Fatwas, like court decisions in common-law legal systems, provided as early foundations for a burgeoning corpus of law. While the term Sharia refers to the law’s divine origins and quality, the term fiqh refers to the human interpretation and expression of Sharia.
Sharia has become a foundation of secular laws rather than a dominating philosophy in most Muslim-majority countries today, or it is implemented only in specific areas, such as family concerns such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Iran, Northern Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan are among the countries where Sharia law is prevalent.
The Fatwa against The Satanic Verses (1988).
The Law Book: From Hammurabi to the International Criminal Court, 250 Milestones in the History of Law (Sterling Milestones) Hardcover – Illustrated, 22 Oct. 2015, English edition by Michael H. Roffer (Autor)