Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) On the Law of War and Peace 1625
Continuous advancements in technology, communication, and transportation continue to draw the world’s nations and peoples closer together, emphasizing the importance of a functioning international legal system. The first foundations of international law appeared immediately after the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, but official doctrines and theories did not arise until the early to mid-seventeenth century, following the devastation of the Thirty Years’ War.
Hugo Grotius, a Dutch philosopher and jurist, was the most significant thinker on the issue. Nicolas Buon published Grotius’ classic legal work, De Jure Belli ac Pacis, in 1625. (On the Law of War and Peace). Some modern scholars doubt Grotius’s claim to be the “Father of International Law,” but no one can deny his importance as a theorist.
According to legal expert John Dugard, “the germs of both the contemporary international human rights movement and modern Bills of Rights can be traced back to Grotius’ magnum opus.” Grotius is credited with establishing a modern notion of natural law that is separate from religion or divine rule. He also felt that nations and individuals were subject to the same laws. As a result, he acknowledged state equality, independence, and sovereignty.
He devised a set of principles by which nations should conduct themselves toward one another, whether at war or at peace. De Jure Belli ac Pacis’ persistent appeal, according to Professor Dugard, stems from its “rejection of raison d’état [state interest] as the underlying premise of international relations, as well as its attempt to introduce morality, justice, and idealism into the international legal order.”
Only conflicts for fair causes, like as protecting or restoring property, were acceptable to Grotius, and he firmly opposed preemptive war. Military action could only be used to defend rights, and it had to be done in good faith and within the confines of the law, making war a moral enterprise on a global scale.
The Geneva Convention (1864);
Colonialism and Postwar Independence (1947).
The Law Book: From Hammurabi to the International Criminal Court, 250 Milestones in the History of Law (Sterling Milestones) Hardcover – Illustrated, 22 Oct. 2015, English edition by Michael H. Roffer (Autor)